Collection ID: 0001 | Metadata type: TEI | TEI XML | Data

LJS 225 Litterarum simulationis liber


Litterarum simulationis liber


Other related names

Call number

LJS 225
(3420 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6206, University of Pennsylvania, Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts)

Alternate identifiers


University of Pennsylvania


Latin (f. 1r-5r) and Italian with rubrics in Latin (f. 5v-20r)


Probably written in Rome, between 1455 and 1458 (during the papacy of Callistus III).
between 1455 and 1458
Rome?, Italy


Presentation copy for Pope Callistus III of a work on cryptography that describes two systems: in the first, Italian words beginning with one letter are all represented by Italian words beginning with another letter; in the second, signs or symbols represent letters or entire Italian words (titles, city names, and numbers).



20 leaves : 223 x 150 (127 x 85) mm bound to 228 x 155 mm


Parchment, i + 20 + i; 1⁵ 2⁵; catchword with simple ornamentation on last verso of first gathering (f. 10v).




Contemporary calf blind-stamped in the Florentine style (modo fiorentino), with an ornamental pattern based on Islamic ropework, over wooden boards, with remnants of 4 pairs of ties.


  • Written in 24 long lines; ruled in lead, vertical bounding lines occasionally visible.
  • Decoration

    1 full-page white vine-stem (bianchi girari) border with 3 birds in the outer border and 2 putti with necklaces holding the arms of Pope Callistus III in the lower border (f. 1r) and 1 7-line initial in gold on a white vine-stem ground (f. 1r), illuminated by Gioacchino di Giovanni di Gigantibus of Rothenberg, Germany, a professional illuminator for the papal court from 1448 onward; 2-line initials in gold filled with green and/or pink throughout; rubrics in faint red ink.


  • Written in humanistic script.
  • Provenance

    Subjects topical






    Front cover
    0204_0000.tif (67.6 MB)
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    0204_0000_web.jpg (303.9 KB)

    Inside front cover
    0204_0001.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0001_thumb.jpg (3.8 KB)
    0204_0001_web.jpg (285.5 KB)

    i recto
    0204_0002.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0002_thumb.jpg (3.3 KB)
    0204_0002_web.jpg (266.1 KB)

    i verso
    0204_0003.tif (67.6 MB)
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    0204_0003_web.jpg (198.9 KB)

    fol. 1r
    0204_0004.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0004_thumb.jpg (7.0 KB)
    0204_0004_web.jpg (389.7 KB)
    Decoration: Illuminated border, Birds and coat of arms, f. 1r
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial E, f. 1r

    fol. 1v
    0204_0005.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0005_thumb.jpg (4.3 KB)
    0204_0005_web.jpg (325.5 KB)

    fol. 2r
    0204_0006.tif (67.6 MB)
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    0204_0006_web.jpg (302.2 KB)

    fol. 2v
    0204_0007.tif (67.6 MB)
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    fol. 3r
    0204_0008.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0008_thumb.jpg (4.1 KB)
    0204_0008_web.jpg (209.4 KB)
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial I, f. 3r
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial T, f. 3r

    fol. 3v
    0204_0009.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0009_thumb.jpg (4.3 KB)
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    fol. 4r
    0204_0010.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0010_thumb.jpg (4.1 KB)
    0204_0010_web.jpg (308.7 KB)
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial S, f. 4r

    fol. 4v
    0204_0011.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0011_thumb.jpg (4.0 KB)
    0204_0011_web.jpg (205.6 KB)
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial V, f. 4v

    fol. 5r
    0204_0012.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0012_thumb.jpg (3.8 KB)
    0204_0012_web.jpg (226.5 KB)
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial E, f. 5r

    fol. 5v
    0204_0013.tif (67.6 MB)
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    fol. 6r
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    fol. 6v
    0204_0015.tif (67.6 MB)
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    fol. 7r
    0204_0016.tif (67.6 MB)
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    0204_0016_web.jpg (180.5 KB)

    fol. 7v
    0204_0017.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0017_thumb.jpg (4.0 KB)
    0204_0017_web.jpg (324.9 KB)

    fol. 8r
    0204_0018.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0018_thumb.jpg (3.7 KB)
    0204_0018_web.jpg (238.6 KB)

    fol. 8v
    0204_0019.tif (67.6 MB)
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    fol. 9r
    0204_0020.tif (67.6 MB)
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    0204_0020_web.jpg (185.4 KB)

    fol. 9v
    0204_0021.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0021_thumb.jpg (3.9 KB)
    0204_0021_web.jpg (293.2 KB)

    fol. 10r
    0204_0022.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0022_thumb.jpg (3.9 KB)
    0204_0022_web.jpg (311.2 KB)

    fol. 10v
    0204_0023.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0023_thumb.jpg (4.0 KB)
    0204_0023_web.jpg (179.9 KB)

    fol. 11r
    0204_0024.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0024_thumb.jpg (3.7 KB)
    0204_0024_web.jpg (185.1 KB)

    fol. 11v
    0204_0025.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0025_thumb.jpg (3.9 KB)
    0204_0025_web.jpg (245.6 KB)

    fol. 12r
    0204_0026.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0026_thumb.jpg (3.9 KB)
    0204_0026_web.jpg (332.1 KB)

    fol. 12v
    0204_0027.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0027_thumb.jpg (3.8 KB)
    0204_0027_web.jpg (182.7 KB)

    fol. 13r
    0204_0028.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0028_thumb.jpg (3.6 KB)
    0204_0028_web.jpg (197.7 KB)

    fol. 13v
    0204_0029.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0029_thumb.jpg (3.8 KB)
    0204_0029_web.jpg (284.0 KB)

    fol. 14r
    0204_0030.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0030_thumb.jpg (3.8 KB)
    0204_0030_web.jpg (253.4 KB)

    fol. 14v
    0204_0031.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0031_thumb.jpg (4.0 KB)
    0204_0031_web.jpg (252.4 KB)
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial S, f. 14v

    fol. 15r
    0204_0032.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0032_thumb.jpg (4.0 KB)
    0204_0032_web.jpg (210.5 KB)
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial P, f. 15r

    fol. 15v
    0204_0033.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0033_thumb.jpg (4.2 KB)
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    fol. 16r
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    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial P, f. 16r

    fol. 16v
    0204_0035.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0035_thumb.jpg (4.0 KB)
    0204_0035_web.jpg (209.9 KB)

    fol. 17r
    0204_0036.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0036_thumb.jpg (3.8 KB)
    0204_0036_web.jpg (247.3 KB)

    fol. 17v
    0204_0037.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0037_thumb.jpg (4.1 KB)
    0204_0037_web.jpg (281.9 KB)
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial H, f. 17v

    fol. 18r
    0204_0038.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0038_thumb.jpg (4.0 KB)
    0204_0038_web.jpg (312.3 KB)
    Decoration: Illuminated initial, Initial H, f. 18r

    fol. 18v
    0204_0039.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0039_thumb.jpg (4.1 KB)
    0204_0039_web.jpg (240.3 KB)

    fol. 19r
    0204_0040.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0040_thumb.jpg (3.9 KB)
    0204_0040_web.jpg (210.6 KB)

    fol. 19v
    0204_0041.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0041_thumb.jpg (4.1 KB)
    0204_0041_web.jpg (318.2 KB)

    fol. 20r
    0204_0042.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0042_thumb.jpg (4.2 KB)
    0204_0042_web.jpg (247.0 KB)

    fol. 20v
    0204_0043.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0043_thumb.jpg (3.4 KB)
    0204_0043_web.jpg (164.8 KB)

    i recto
    0204_0044.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0044_thumb.jpg (3.3 KB)
    0204_0044_web.jpg (162.3 KB)

    i verso
    0204_0045.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0045_thumb.jpg (3.2 KB)
    0204_0045_web.jpg (178.1 KB)

    Inside back cover
    0204_0046.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0046_thumb.jpg (3.6 KB)
    0204_0046_web.jpg (230.9 KB)

    Back cover
    0204_0047.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0047_thumb.jpg (3.9 KB)
    0204_0047_web.jpg (305.8 KB)

    0204_0048.tif (67.6 MB)
    0204_0048_thumb.jpg (2.4 KB)
    0204_0048_web.jpg (85.2 KB)