University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Lawrence J. Schoenberg Manuscripts

University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Lawrence J. Schoenberg Manuscripts

Repository ID: 0001 | Metadata type: TEI

Documents from the Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection of Manuscripts



All images and their contents from the Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection are free of known copyright restrictions and in the public domain. See the Creative Commons Public Domain Mark page for more information on terms of use:


Unless otherwise stated, all manuscript descriptions and other cataloging metadata hosted here are ©2023 The University of Pennsylvania Libraries. They are licensed for use under a Creative Commons Attribution Licensed version 4.0 (CC-BY-4.0):

For a description of the terms of use see, the Creative Commons Deed:

Intended Users

The data presented on OPenn is intended for aggregators, digital humanists, and scholars who have been directed here to procure high-resolution images and their associated metadata. It is presented in a manner most likely to ensure its long-term digital preservation.

For those who would prefer to experience the data in a more user-friendly way, we suggest:

About the Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection

In 2011, University of Pennsylvania Libraries Board members Barbara Brizdle Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Schoenberg donated their manuscript collection of nearly 300 manuscripts and documents to the Penn Libraries, half of which are from medieval and Renaissance Europe. With its emphasis on the history of science and the transmission of knowledge across time and geography, the Schoenberg Collection brings together many of the great scientific and philosophical traditions of the ancient and medieval worlds. Documenting the extraordinary achievements of scholars, philosophers, and scientists active in pre-modern Europe, Africa, and Asia, the collection illuminates the foundations of our shared intellectual heritage.

Image standards and specifications

In general, The Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text & Image follows the NISO standards as articulated in A Framework for Building Good Digital Collections, 3rd Edition:

The following represents specific standards adopted by SCETI in their capture of digital images.

Image specifications

Imaging and processing equipment

Master images are captured at a resolution of at least 600 pixels per inch of the image subject. Once all of the images for a manuscript have been captured they are color-corrected, deskewed, and cropped.

In 2015, SCETI began using IQ280 Phase One digital cameras; however, OPenn contains images that were captured using different equipment before this time. If you have questions about a specific manuscript or image, please refer to the header of the Master image or images in question or the accompanying XMP files. You can see this, for example, in the Master images for Penn Manuscript Ms. Codex 1096 at Note the metadata in the image header of 0396_0000.tif or in its sidecar XMP file 0396_0000.tif.xmp as seen below.

<rdf:Description rdf:about=''
  <tiff:Make>Phase One</tiff:Make>
  <tiff:Model>P 45+</tiff:Model>
  <tiff:Software>Capture One 4 Windows</tiff:Software>


Images of manuscripts from the Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection were digitized through grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities. In 2009 and 2011, the Division of Preservation and Access of the National Endowment for the Humanities awarded the Penn Libraries two grants to prepare digital facsimiles of approximately 2,200 European and American manuscripts from the eleventh through the eighteenth centuries. Imaging was undertaken by the staff of the Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text & Image with coordination from manuscripts staff in the Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this website do not necessarily reflect those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The documents on OPenn